Titanium is a silvery gray, transitional metal that is lightweight and strong, has low density, and great resistance to corrosion. Its name is derived from the word “titans,” a Latin term that refers to the first sons of the Earth in Greek mythology. Extraction and Processing Titanium is the planet’s forth most abundant metal, after aluminum, iron, and magnesium. It is found in various mineral deposit sites located in the United States, Australia, South Africa, Russia, Malaysia, Norway, and many others. The most common method used to extract titanium was invented by William J. Kroll in the 1930s and is called the Kroll process.
The Kroll process involves at least steps. The first one is where chlorine is added to the titanium oxide ore to react in order to yield titanium chloride. The chemical equation looks like this: TiO2 + 2Cl2 + 2C -> TiCl4 + 2CO. After that, titanium can be reduced by using either sodium or magnesium. If sodium is used, the balanced chemical equation looks like this: TiCl4 + 4Na -> Ti + 4NaCl.
The sodium chloride is removed by washing the mixture with dilute hydrochloric acid. If magnesium is used, the balanced chemical equation looks like this: TiCl4 + 2Mg -> Ti + 2MgCl2. The magnesium chloride is taken out by doing a distillation process at a high temperature and very low pressure. The extracted titanium then undergoes various processes to produce titanium ingots, titanium powder, titanium alloys, and other titanium materials, including titanium bars, titanium anodes, titanium wires, and titanium sheets for different applications, such as marine, aerospace, medical, and automotive. Cutting Cutting titanium sheets requires a high-heat, gas-cutting technique, such as the use of an oxy-acetylene torch and other tools that can be rented from stores, or a cold-cutting method, which is quite difficult to do-it-yourself because of the necessary specialized types of equipment.
The basic tools and materials needed to cut titanium sheets are the proper cutting tools, for example, a plasma cutter, a 6-inch angle grinder, and a 6-inch diameter, 60-grit flapper wheel, as well as the appropriate protection gear — safety glasses, welding gloves, and fire extinguisher — in case of emergencies. Other standard mill products include titanium tubing and titanium rods and wire