History of Titanium
Titanium is a metallic element that was discovered in 1791 in Cornwall, Great Britain by William Gregor, who was a geologist and clergyman. It was found in a mineral and had to be extracted by undergoing different processes, such as heating the mineral ore in the presence of carbon to yield titanium carbide.
Processing titanium metal is made up of four primary steps. The first one is reducing the titanium ore into a porous form or “sponge.” The second step involves melting the sponge with or without a master alloy to come up with an ingot. The third step is the primary fabrication of an ingot, where it is transformed into billet, plate, strip, tube, bar, and other general mill products. The final step is called secondary fabrication, where mill products go through some finishing.
Types of Titanium Fasteners
Titanium fasteners are available in different forms, shapes, and sizes. They are manufactured as:
Titanium bolts – Titanium hex head bolts usually come in 8-32 to ¾-10 sizes and 0.5- to 4-inch lengths. Other sizes are available upon request to manufacturers.
Titanium hex nuts – Titanium hex nuts are available in various sizes (4-40 to M16), thicknesses (.098/.087 to 8/7.42 mm), and widths (1/4 to 24/23.67 mm).
Titanium screws – There are different types of titanium screws:
- Flat head Phillips machine screw – These have flat tops with X-shaped slots for Phillips screw drivers.
- Flat head slotted machine screw – These have flat tops with simple slots for flat bladed screw drivers.
- Pan head Phillips Machine screws – These have short vertical sides and are a bit rounded. Their tops are X-shaped for use of Phillips screw drivers.
- Round head slotted machine screw – These are countersunk and have rounded tops with slots for flat bladed screw drivers.
- Round head Phillips machine screw – These have oval heads and rounded tops that have X shapes for use of Phillips screw drivers.
Other examples of titanium screws include pan head slotted machine screws, hex socket cap screws, hex socket set screws, Torx pan head type F screws, Torx flat head type F screws, combo round head screws, slotted truss head screws, and combo truss head screws.